For phone orders call 1-800-AVOTAYNU (286-8296)

















 

From A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names:
Their Origins, Structure, Pronunciation and Migrations
by Alexander Beider

Pre-publication offer
A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names will be in print in July-August 2001. Order the book now for $85.00. We will not charge you until the book is shipped.

Order book
 
A Special Offer
Purchase all three of Dr. Beider's books --
A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Russian Empire, A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Kingdom of Poland and A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names for only $199.00 (retail value $229.50).

Order all three books
 

Contents

Acknowledgments	xi
Preface	xiii
Glossary	xvi
Special Symbols Used	xxi
Introduction	xxii
  0.1 Previous Studies of Jewish Given Names	xxii
  0.2 Problems with Sources	xxiv
  0.3 Distinction Between Given Names and Nicknames	xxvi
  0.4 Stylistic Classes of Given Names (Synchronic Analysis)	xxviii
  0.5 Diachronic Analysis: How Names Change Over Time	xxix
    0.5.1 Definitions	xxix
    0.5.2 Initial Development of Names	xxx
     0.5.2.1 Principal Classification	xxx
     0.5.2.2 Classification by Language	xxxii
    0.5.2.3 Classification by How- Question	xxxiv
   0.5.3 Derivations of Names	xxxiv
   0.5.4 Variation of Names	xxxvi
   0.5.5 Joining of Names	xxxix
   0.5.6 Survival and Disappearance of Names	xl
Chapter 1: Given Names In the Ashkenazic Tradition	1
  1.1 Shemot Ha-Qodesh and Kinnuim	1
  1.2 Several Names Borne by the Same Individual	1
    1.2.1 Oldest Ashkenazic Occurrences of Several Names Designating the Same Person	1
    1.2.2 Correspondences Between Shemot Ha-qodesh and Kinnuim	4
    1.2.3 Use of Two Independent Names	7
    1.2.4 Persons with More Than Two Given Names	10
  1.3 Survival and Disappearance of Names	12
  1.4 Most Common Names	16
Chapter 2: Initial Development of Names	19
  2.1 Calques and Loan Translations	19
  2.2 Christian Forms of Biblical Names	25
  2.3 Phonetic Borrowing of Non-Jewish Names	27
  2.4 Plain Borrowing	29
    2.4.1 Medieval Germany	29
    2.4.2 Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia	32
    2.4.3 Poland	33
    2.4.4 Russian Principalities and Grand Duchy of Lithuania	34
    2.5 Plain Creations	35
    2.6 Distinction Between Various Groups of Base Names	37
  2.7 Creation of Feminine Forms from Masculine Names	39
  2.8 Names Borrowed from Sacred Texts	43
Chapter 3: Creation of Hypocoristic and Pet Forms	45
  3.1 Forms with Suffixes	45
    3.1.1 Suffix -et/ette/etta	46
    3.1.2 Suffix -in	47
    3.1.3 Suffix -(e)lin/lein	49
      3.1.3.1 Suffix -(e)lin/lein in German-speaking countries before the Black Death	49
      3.1.3.2 Suffix -lin/lein/len in German-speaking countries after the Black Death	51
      3.1.3.3 Suffix -lin/lein in Central and Eastern Europe	52
    3.1.4 Suffix -li	54
    3.1.5 Suffix -(e)l	54
      3.1.5.1 Suffix -(e)l in German-speaking countries before the Black Death	54
      3.1.5.2 Suffix -(e)l in German-speaking countries after the Black Death	56
      3.1.5.3 Suffix -(e)l in Central Europe	58
      3.1.5.4 Suffix -l in Eastern Europe Before 17th Century	59
      3.1.5.5 Suffix -l in Eastern Europe in Modern Times	60
    3.1.6 Suffixes -le and -la	61
    3.1.7 Slavic Suffixes with /l/	62
    3.1.8 Suffixes -khe(n) and -ke(n)	63
    3.1.9 Suffixes with /sh/ and /s/	66
      3.1.9.1 Middle Ages	66
      3.1.9.2 After the Middle Ages	67
      3.1.9.3 Suffix -zye	69
    3.1.10 Suffixes with /k/	69
      3.1.10.1 Central Europe	69
      3.1.10.2 Poland	71
      3.1.10.3 Lithuania, Belorussia and Ukraine	73
      3.1.10.4 The Origins of the Yiddish Suffix -ke	75
    3.1.11 Suffixes -khna/khno/khne and -khe	77
    3.1.12 Suffixes with /ts/ and /tsh/	79
      3.1.12.1 Germany	79
      3.1.12.2 Slavic Countries	80
    3.1.13 Suffixes with /n/	82
    3.1.14 Suffix -uta/ute	83
    3.1.15 Suffix -e	83
    3.1.16 Rare non-Slavic suffixes	86
    3.1.17 Two Hypocoristic Suffixes in One Name	86
    3.1.18 Influence of the Morphological and Phonetic Structure of the Full Form	88
    3.1.19 Synthesis	88
  3.2 Hypocorisms with Added Words	89
    3.2.1 Names Ending in -kind	89
    3.2.2 The Names Ending in -man	90
    3.2.3 Germanic Adjectives as Second Parts of Compound Names	91
  3.3 Suffixless Hypocoristic Forms	93
    3.3.1 Truncation of Initial Elements (Aphaeresis)	93
    3.3.2 Truncation of Final Elements (Apocope)	94
    3.3.3 Truncation of Internal Elements (Syncope)	95
    3.3.4 Duplication of the Initial Consonant	95
    3.3.5 Umlaut	95
    3.3.6 Palatalization of Consonants	96
    3.3.7 Transformation of Diphthongs to Monophthongs	97
  3.4 Borrowed Derivations	97
  3.5 Creation of an Acronym	98
Chapter 4: Phonetic Changes	99
  4.1 Sources for Phonetic Analysis	99
  4.2 Unstressed Vowels and Diphthongs	100
    4.2.1 Reduction of the Unstressed Vowels and Diphthongs	100
    4.2.2 Elimination of the Final Vowel (Apocope)	102
    4.2.3 Elimination of the Unstressed Initial Vowels (Aphaeresis)	104
    4.2.4 Elimination of the Unstressed Internal Vowels (Syncope)	104
  4.3 Stressed Vowels and Diphthongs	105
    4.3.1 Early Scheme of Yiddish Protovowels	105
    4.3.2 Protovowels 11, 21 and 41	106
    4.3.3 Protovowels 31, 32 and 33	107
    4.3.4 Protovowels 12 and 13	108
      4.3.4.1 Names with the Protovowel 12	108
      4.3.4.2 Shift a(12) > o(12)	108
      4.3.4.3 Shift a(13) > o(13)	110
      4.3.4.4 Shift /o/ > /u/ for the Protovowels 12 and 13	113
    4.3.5 Protovowels 51, 52 and 53	114
    4.3.6 Protovowels 22 and 23	115
      4.3.6.1 General Considerations	115
      4.3.6.2 Shift /e:/ > /ey/	116
      4.3.6.3 Shift /ey/ > /ay/	117
    4.3.7 Protovowels 42 and 43	118
      4.3.7.1 Diphthongization	118
      4.3.7.2 Case /ey/ in Northeastern Yiddish	119
      4.3.7.3 Specific Variants of Biblical Names	119
    4.3.8 Protovowel 54	121
    4.3.9 Protovowel 34	122
    4.3.10 Protovowel 24	123
    4.3.11 Protovowel 44	124
    4.3.12 Protovowel 25	125
    4.3.13 Protovowels 21, 31 and 51 before /r/ and /kh/	126
    4.3.14 Monophthongization	127
    4.3.15 Change /o/ > /u/ in the Rhineland	127
  4.4 Consonants	128
    4.4.1 Devoicing of Plosive Consonants in Initial and Medial Position	128
    4.4.2 Final Devoicing	129
    4.4.3 Shift /s/ > /ts/	131
    4.4.4 Shift /v/ > /f/	132
    4.4.5 Confusion between he and het, the Disappearance and the Introduction of /h/	133
      4.4.5.1 Western Europe	133
      4.4.5.2 Peculiarities of German Spelling and Phonetics	135
      4.4.5.3 Ukraine	135
    4.4.6 Confusion between /k/ and /kh/	135
    4.4.7 Confusion between /b/ and /v/, /p/ and /f/	136
    4.4.8 Sabesdiker Losn	138
    4.4.9 Confusion between Nasals	139
    4.4.10 Regressive Assimilation and Contraction of Consonantal Clusters	140
    4.4.11 Epenthesis	141
    4.4.12 Confusion between Liquids	142
    4.4.13 Slavic Influences	142
  4.5 Whole Hebrew and Merged Hebrew	143
Chapter 5: Origin of Ashkenazic Communities	146
  5.1 Methodological Principles	146
    5.1.1 Classification of Communities	146
    5.1.2 Diagnostic Names	147
  5.2 West Germany and Alsace (11th-14th Centuries)	148
    5.2.1 General Considerations	148
    5.2.2 French, Italian and Spanish Immigrants in Germany	149
    5.2.3 Oriental Jews in West Germany	154
    5.2.4 Names That Appeared in West Germany	158
    5.2.5 Rhineland, Franconia and Bavaria: Common or Independent Origins -	160
  5.3 Central Europe	165
    5.3.1 Bohemia and Moravia in the Middle Ages	165
    5.3.2 Ashkenazic Jews in Czech Provinces	167
    5.3.3 Silesia	168
    5.3.4 East Germany	169
    5.3.5 Austria	172
    5.3.6 Hungary Before the Late 16th Century	176
  5.4 Great Poland, Little Poland and Mazovia	177
  5.5 Ruthenia	181
    5.5.1 Before the 16th Century	181
    5.5.2 End of the 16th Century - First Half of the 17th Century	182
  5.6 Russian Principalities and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania	183
    5.6.1 Before 1495	183
    5.6.2 16th Century and the First Half of the 17th Century	186
    5.6.3 Brest and Grodno in the 16th Century	190
    5.6.4 Origins of the Slavic-speaking Jews	194
    5.6.5 Origins of the Yiddish-speaking Jews	195
    5.6.6 Homogenization of the Corpus of Names in the Late 16th to the Early 17th Century	197
  5.7 Conclusion	198
    5.7.1 Loter and Ashkenaz	198
    5.7.2 West Canaan	199
    5.7.3 Fusion of Ashkenaz and West Canaan	200
    5.7.4 East Canaan	201
    5.7.5 Synthesis	202
Appendix A: Principal Sources	204
  A.1. German Provinces	204
    A.1.1 Salfeld (1898)	204
    A.1.2 Hoeniger (1888)	205  
    A.1.3 Stern (1894)	205
    A.1.4 Kracauer (1914)	205
    A.1.5 Oldest References to the Ashkenazic Jews	205
    A.1.6 Cemeteries of Worms, Mainz and Speyer	206
    A.1.7 Horovitz (1901)	206
    A.1.8 Grunwald (1904)	206
    A.1.9 Germania Judaica 2 and 3 (GJ 2 and GJ 3)	207
    A.1.10 Miedel (1909)	208
    A.1.11 Süssmann (1915)	208
    A.1.12 Freudenthal (1928)	208
    A.1.13 Modern Compilations of Sources from Hessen	208
  A.2 Alsace and Switzerland	208
    A.2.1 Mentgen (1995)	208
    A.2.2 Steinberg (1903)	208
    A.2.3 Leeson (1993)	209
  A.3 Austria and Hungary	209
    A.3.1 Goldmann (1908), Schwarz (1909) and Geyer (1931)	209
    A.3.2 Wachstein (1912)	209
    A.3.3 Liber Judeorum of Wiener Neustadt	209
    A.3.4 Spitzer (1974)	209
    A.3.5 Magyar-Zsido okleveltar	210
    A.3.6 Scheiber (1983)	210
  A.4 Amsterdam	210
    A.4.1 Van Straten (1996)	210
  A.5 Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia	210 
    A.5.1 Bondy (1906)	210
    A.5.2 Bretholz (1935)	211
    A.5.3 Hock (1892)	211
    A.5.4 Muneles (1988)	211
    A.5.5 Brann (1896)	211
    A.5.6 Wodzinski (1996)	211
  A.6 Eastern Europe	211
    A.6.1 Russko-yevrejskij arkhiv (REA) and Regesty i nadpisi (RN)	211
    A.6.2 Historical Studies by M.Balaban and I.Schipper	215
    A.6.3 PCLL and Halperin 1945	216
    A.6.4 Post-war Studies on the History of the Polish Jews	216
    A.6.5 Name Lists	217
    A.6.6 Official Documents from the 19th Century and the Start of the 20th Century	218
    A.6.7 Yiddish literature	218
    A.6.8 Family Names	218
Appendix B: Double Given Names in Northeastern Poland	219
Appendix  C: Most Popular Given Names	222
Appendix D: Transliteration Rules	226
Appendix E: Provinces and Regions Cited	229
Bibliography	231
  1. Encyclopaedias	231  
  2. General History	231
  3. Sources and Collections of Sources	233
  4. Linguistics	237
  5. Onomastics	239
Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names	242
  How to Use This Dictionary	243
  Cities and Towns Cited in the Dictionary	257
  Dictionary of Ashkenazic Masculine Names	258
  Dictionary of Ashkenazic Feminine Names	460
  Description of Indexes	595
  List of Masculine Name Variants and Derived Forms	596
  List of Feminine Name Variants and Derived Forms	608
Index to Masculine Names in the References	618
  Names in Latin characters	618
  Names in Cyrillic characters	636
  Names in Hebrew characters	641
Index to Feminine Names in the References	646
  Names in Latin characters	646
  Names in Cyrillic characters	657
  Names in Hebrew characters	660

Cost: $85.00


Order book
 
A Special Offer
Purchase all three of Dr. Beider's books --
A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Russian Empire, A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from the Kingdom of Poland and A Dictionary of Ashkenazic Given Names for only $199.00 (retail value $229.50).

Order all three books
 

Send comments to: info@avotaynu.com

[Back to Avotaynu Home Page]


© 2001, Alexander Beider