A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames From the Kingdom of Poland
Table of Contents
                                        
PART I
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x
Introduction. General Problems of Eastern European Jewish Onomastics . . . . . . . . . xi
   Where and When Did the Surname First Appear?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
   What Word or Words Are the Basis for the Surname? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii
   How Was the Surname Created from This Word? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
   Why Was This Surname Chosen?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv
   Civil Records as Empirical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
   Dangers in Onomastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
   Aims of This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
How to Use This Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxi
What to Do If You Cannot Find Your Surname Listed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxvii
Alphabets and Their Spellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxviii
   Hebrew and Yiddish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxviii
   Cyrillic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
   Phonetic Equivalents of Certain Polish Letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
Administrative Subdivisions of the Kingdom of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxx
Maps of the Kingdom of Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxxii
   Map 1. The Partitions of Poland (1772■1795) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxxii
   Map 2. The Kingdom of Poland (1815■1844). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiii
   Map 3. The Kingdom of Poland at the Beginning of the 20th Century . . . . . . . .xxxiv
Main Localities in the Kingdom of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
Chapter 1. History of Jewish Names in Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
   Names in Jewish Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
   Names of Polish Jews in Christian Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
   Latin and German Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
   Sephardic Families in Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
   Partitions of Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
   Surname Adoption in Galicia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
   Surname Adoption in South and New East Prussia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
   Surname Adoption in the Kingdom of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Surnames in the Civil Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   Surname Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   Surname Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   Pseudonyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Chapter 2. The Linguistics of Jewish Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Languages Used to Form Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Jewish Languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   Polish Phenomena. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   Suffixes Found in Jewish Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   Polish Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   German and Yiddish Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Chapter 3. Types of Jewish Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   Geographical Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   Surnames Derived from Given Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
   Surnames Derived from Toponyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   Percentage of Surnames by Suffix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   Artificial Surnames Drawn from German or Yiddish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   Artificial Surnames Drawn from Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Chapter 4. Jewish Surnames That Coincide with Slavic Christian Surnames. . . . . . . . 42
   Surnames Derived from Masculine Given Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   Occupational Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   Surnames Formed Semantically from Polish Words Designating Utensils, 
     Clothing, Shoes and Other Products or Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   Surnames Formed Semantically from Polish Words Designating Plants, 
     Trees, Food, Beverages, Metals and Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   Surnames Based on Personal Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   Surnames That Designate Animals, Birds and Fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
   Surnames Derived from Toponyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   Surnames That Have Different Meanings for Jews and Christians . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   Jewish Surnames Homonymic with Slavic Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   Polish-Christian Surnames Borrowed by Jews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   German-Sounding Surnames Shared in Poland by Jews and Christians. . . . . . . . . . 48
Chapter 5. Spelling of Polish-Jewish Surnames  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   The Main Problem: German Versus Polish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   Particular Scribes and Their Influence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   Historical Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   Russian as the Official Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   Independent Poland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
   Spelling Used in the Dictionary of Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Appendix A. The Most Common Jewish Surnames in the Kingdom of Poland 
   At the Beginning of the 20th Century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Appendix B. Jewish Migrations in the Kingdom of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
   Migrations Caused by Legal Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
   Economic Migrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
   Rabbinical and Hasidic Migrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   Dictionaries and Vocabularies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   Principal Sources of Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   Gazetteers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

PART II
Dictionary of Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

PART III
List of Surnames by the Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491
How to Use the Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
                                               
Tables
0.1     Surnames Whose Source Is a Given Name as Demonstrated by Civil Records . . . . . . .xv
0.2     Surnames Whose Source Is an Occupation Name as Demonstrated by Civil Records . . . xvi
0.3     Surnames Whose Source Is a Place Name as Demonstrated by Civil Records . . . . . .xvii
0.4     Variations of Polish Surnames by Gender and Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii
0.5     German and Polish Letter Combinations That Are Equivalent or Close Phonetically. xxvii
1.1     Frequency of Surnames in Ch■ciny Civil Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
2.1     Language Distribution of Jewish Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
2.2     Morphological Distribution of Jewish Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
2.3     Polish Suffixes in Polish-Jewish Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
2.4     Palatalization of Polish Consonants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
2.5     German/Yiddish Suffixes Found in Polish-Jewish Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
2.6     Umlaut in Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.1     Percentage of Jewish Surnames in Russian Parliament Voter Lists by Type. . . . . . .33
3.2     Distribution of Jewish Surnames Derived from Toponyms in the Kingdom of Poland . . .35
3.3     Distribution of Rural Jews in the Duchy of Warsaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
4.1     Jewish Surnames Homonymic with Slavic Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
4.2     Distribution of Selected Surnames in Warsaw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
5.1     Polish Letters and Letter Combinations Interchangeable in Jewish Surnames. . . . . .53
A.1     Most Common Jewish Surnames in the Guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland . . . . . . .58



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