A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames From the Russian Empire
Table of Contents
PART I
Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xi
How to Use This Dictionary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
What to Do if You Cannot Find Your Surname Listed . . . . . . . . . xix
Alphabets and Their Spellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx
  Hebrew and Yiddish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx
  Cyrillic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
  Phonetic Equivalents of Certain Polish Letters. . . . . . . . . . xxi
  Phonetic Equivalents of Certain Romanian Letters. . . . . . . . . xxi
Map of the Pale of Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii
Chapter 1. History of Jewish Names in Eastern Europe. . . . . . . . . 1
  Names in Hebrew Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
  Names in Russian Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
  The Adoption of Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
  Surname Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Chapter 2. Types of Jewish Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
  Geographical Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
  Surnames Indicating Kohen or Levite Origin. . . . . . . . . . . . .17
  Rabbinical Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
  Surnames Derived from Toponyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
  Principal Features of Surnames Derived from Toponyms. . . . . . . .26
  Patronymic Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
  Metronymic Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
  Occupational Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
  Surnames Derived from Personal Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . .46
  Artificial Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
  Acronymic Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Chapter 3. Jewish Surnames and Surnames of Other European Peoples . .60
  Jewish Surnames that Coincide with Slavic Surnames. . . . . . . . .60
  Jewish Surnames Identical to Surnames of German Christians. . . . .65
  Surnames Borne Only by Jews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Chapter 4. Linguistic Aspects of Jewish Surnames. . . . . . . . . . .71
  Languages Used to Form Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
  Normalization of Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Appendix A. Hyphenated Surnames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Appendix B. The Most Common Jewish Surnames in the Russian Empire
         at the Beginning of the 20th Century . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Appendix C. The Most Common Jewish Surnames in the Soviet Union . . .87
Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92

PART II
Dictionary of Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

PART III
How to Use the Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex System . . . . . . . . . . . 659
List of Surnames by the Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex System. . . . . . . 662
Tables

I.1   Variations of Russian Surnames by Gender and Case . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
1.1   Surnames on Tombstones in the Old Prague Jewish Cemetery. . . . . . . . . . .4
1.2   Number of Bearers of Different Forms of the Same Given Name
         in Various Time Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
1.3   Percentage of Jewish Given Names in Certain Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
2.1   Percentage of Jewish Surnames Found in Russian Parliament Voter Lists by Type16
2.2   Distribution of Jewish Surnames Derived from Toponyms
         in Eleven Guberniyas of the Pale of Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.3   Distribution of Jewish Surnames Derived from Toponyms
         in Various Regions of the Russian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.4   Jewish Patronymics in Various Regions of the Russian Empire . . . . . . . . 31
2.5   Distribution of Jewish Patronymics with Suffixes in the Russian Empire. . . 34
2.6   Distribution of Jewish Matronymics in Various Districts of the Russian Empire38
2.7   Distribution of Jewish Surnames Derived from Occupational Names . . . . . . 45
2.8   Distribution of Jewish Surnames Based on Personal Characteristics
         in Various Regions of the Russian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.9   Distribution of Jewish Artificial Surnames by Language
         in Various Regions of the Russian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.1   Jewish Surnames Homonymic with Slavic Surnames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.2   Jewish Surnames Identical to Slavic Surnames
         Where Jewish Etymology is a Place Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
B.1   Most Common Jewish Surnames for Eleven Guberniyas of the Russian Empire . . 84
B.2   Most Common Jewish Surnames in Other Parts of the Russian Empire. . . . . . 85
B.3   Most Common Jewish Surnames in Kiev and Its Surrounding Townlets. . . . . . 86
C.1   Most Common Jewish Surnames for Six Cities of the Soviet Union. . . . . . . 88



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