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the 'Final Solution' The Jews in Belgrade 1521–1942
by Jennie Lebel
book is the result of 20 years of
painstaking research by the author. Its contents are based on
by more than 800 footnotes—from the 16th century to the
community’s tragic end
in 1942. The history of the Jewish community under Ottoman rule, Serbia, Yugoslavia
and finally the German
occupation and the “Final Solution” is told in
great detail, always based on
addition, the book contains specific
sections dealing with aspects of the Jewish life: rabbis,
synagogues, cemeteries and funeral
ceremonies, educational institutions, Jewish life in general, and a
list of all Jewish institutions. There is an extensive bibliography and
index of names.
The book makes
optimal use of primary sources and
combines archive documents, literary and religious sources with field
consisting of questions and interviews. The fact that the author was a
of the community enabled her to interview a wide range of persons and
primary sources that are vanishing.
Belgrade was the first major European city to become
Jews. It started in December 1941, before the Wannsee Conference where
Solution was formally adopted, and, by May, 1942, there were no more
7" x 10" 476 pp. softcover $39.00
Contents A WORD BY THE AUTHOR IXTRANSLITERATION / TRANSCRIPTION XIIIINTRODUCTION XVJEWS IN BELGRADE BEFORE THE OTTOMAN CONQUESTS 1Ottoman (Turkish) Rule 3Kendi-Gelens And Sürgüns 4Ottoman System of Renting (Leasing) 6FACTS ON JEWS FROM NON-JEWISH SOURCES 8Travel Literature 8LITERATURE OF QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (‘RESPONSAE’) 14JEWISH QUARTER IN BELGRADE 17Data From Documents On Deserted Wives (Agunot) 19Discord Between Various Texts and the Facts 22Last Wills As Sources 24Infringement of the Right to Privacy 26Circulation of Promissory Notes 27RABBIS IN BELGRADE IN THE 17TH CENTURY 29Rabbi Meir Angel 30Rabbi Jehuda Lerma 30Rabbi Simcha Hacohen 31Emissaries from the Holy Land 33BELGRADE AND THE MESSIANIC MOVEMENT OF SHABBETAI ZVI 36Rabbi Joseph Almosnino 38OCCUPATION OF BELGRADE IN 1688 AND THE FATE OF BELGRADE JEWS 40Funds for the Redemption of Prisoners 41Contributions of the Jewish Communities 43Joseph Ibn-Danon: ‘Three Tendrils of Vine’ 44Moshe Hacohen: ‘The Writer’s Pen’ 45Shelomo Munian from Belgrade 50Nehemiah Hiya Hayon 51BELGRADE FROM 1690 TO 1739 53Hans or Courtyards? 55RABBIS IN THE 18TH CENTURY 59Rabbis Shemuel Pinto and Yitzhak Bachar-Moshe 59Rabbi Benjamin Zeev Yaffe Margaliot 59Rabbis Levy Yitzhak Jerushalmi and Morenu 61Rabbi Nathan Ginzburg 64Rabbi Shelomo Salem 64Rabbi David Pardo 66Rabbis Azriel Ben Jechiel and Joshua Ben Azriel Magresso 67Rabbi David Chaim Pinto 68FIRST SERBIAN UPRISING AND THE JEWS 69SECOND SERBIAN UPRISING AND THE FIRST REIGN OF PRINCE MILOŠ 72Rabbi Abraham Ben Yitzhak Pardo 72PRINCE MILOŠ AND THE JEWS 75Rabbi Reuben Baruch 78Rabbi Joseph Ben Yitzhak Finzi 78‘DEFENDERS OF THE CONSTITUTION’ 80Accusations of ‘Ritual Murders’ 81Anti-Jewish Laws 83Applications, Complaints, Petitions… 84Treaty of Paris 90Prince Miloš’ Second Reign 94Prince Miloš’s Decree 97After the Death of Prince Miloš 98ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE 100Interventions 101Rabbi Raphael Joseph Ben Meir Sasson 103Bombing of Belgrade in 1862 103Rabbi Jehuda Zeev Weinberger 105AFTER THE RETURN OF THE REFUGEES 108‘Svetovid’ Incites Against The Jews 112Violation of the ‘Capitulations’ 113Murders In Šabac 115Attempts of Emigration to Eretz Israel 120Attacks of the Belgrade Press 123Consuls’ Interventions 125Pamphlet by Dr. Michael Rosen 126Jews Become Subject to Military Conscription 131Treatment of Foreign Subjects 132Expulsions from the Provinces in 1876–1878 134Peace Agreement of March 1st, 1877 135Second Serbian-Turkish War 135Persecutions Continue 136In the ‘Newly Acquired Regions’ 136QUESTION OF SERBIA’S INDEPENDENCE AT THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN IN JUNE 1878 138From The Congress of Berlin Until the 1888 Constitution: Implementation of the Congress Decisions 141Jews of Belgrade Assist Refugees from Russia 144Physicians and the Jewish Question 144Anti-Jewish Literature 147SUBSTITUTE RABBIS AND RABBIS UNTIL THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 151Jacob Ben Shalom Kalderon: 151Abraham Ben Jacob Eliah 152Moshe ben David Alkalay 152Abraham ben Israel Bejerano 153Benjamin Hamoy 153Rabbi Dr. Shelomo Mandelkern 154Rabbi Dr. Shimon Bernfeld 155JEWS IN POLITICS 158DEMOGRAPHIC DATA 1893–1900 163GENERAL NUMBER OF THOSE ABLE TO READ AND WRITE 164SEPHARDIM AND ASHKENAZIM 166RABBINICAL SYNOD AND THE CHIEF RABBI 177Orthodox Communities 178JEWS IN SERBIA’S WARS 185Balkan Wars 185World War I - 1914–1918 186RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY OF THE SEPHARDI RITE 191RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY OF THE ASHKENAZI RITE 202JEWISH MATRIMONIAL LAW 205Ketubah – The Marriage Contract 206Divorce (Hebrew: Get) 211ZIONISM 213Balfour Declaration – November 2, 1917 213SYNAGOGUES IN BELGRADE 217The Old Synagogue – ‘El Kal Vjezho’ – Stara Sinagoga 218New Synagogue – ‘El Kal Nuevo’ 220Jewish Centre and Synagogue ‘Bet Israel’ 224Prayer-House in the Fišeklija 227Ashkenazi Synagogue 229Mikve – Ritual Bath 233CEMETERIES AND FUNERAL CUSTOMS 235Chevra Kadisha 235Cemeteries in Belgrade 238Closing of the Old and Opening of the New Cemetery 245Monument to the Jews Fallen In the Wars of Liberation and Unification 249Abolition of Street Funerals 249New Chapel in the Jewish Cemetery in Belgrade 250Ashkenazi Cemetery And The Chevra Kadisha 251Genizah 252Jewish Cemetery in Belgrade Today 254EDUCATION 256Talmud Torah 256Meldar / Heder 257How the Hebrew Alef-Bet Was Taught in the Meldars 258Education Shortly Before World War Ii 267Numerus Clausus in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, October 5, 1940 268Decree on the Admission to Schools of Persons 0f Jewish Origin 268Application of the Numerus Clausus in Secondary Schools 273Decree on the Admission to Universities of Persons of Jewish Origin 277Act of the Ministry of Education No. 1323/40, October 8th, 1940 277THE FINAL SOLUTION IN BELGRADE 281Beginning of the End 281Establishment of the Military Occupation Authority and the ‘Einsatzstab Rosenberg’ 282Department For Jewish Questions at the Gestapo 284(The Judenreferat) and Stages of the Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Occupied Serbia 284Civil Authority and the Collaborators 285Number of Jews in Belgrade in 1941 289Belgrade Conference 290Jews as Collaborators of the Occupying Power 292Order of the Military Commander of Serbia 293Census of Jewish Property 297Forced Labour 298Smederevo 299Representation of the Jewish Community in Belgrade 301Jewish Sanitary Service in Belgrade 303‘The First Hundred’ 304Banat Jews 305Banjica Camp – ‘Reception Camp Dedinje’ 305Topovske Šupe Camp 307Killing of Hostages in Belgrade 309Kladovo–Šabac Transport 310'Bloody March' Of Šabac 312Report on the Shooting of Jews on October 9th and 11th, 1941 314100 Men In 40 Minutes 316‘Anti-Masonic Exhibition’ 320Fair Grounds (Sajmište) - ‘Judenlager Semlin’ 321Mobile Gas Chamber – 'Dušegupka' (‘Souls Slaughterer’) 325‘Keine Judenfrage Mehr!’ 329Plans for the Extradition of Jewish Prisoners Of War 329Prohibition on the Hiding of Jews 331Plunder of Property 332‘Blobel-Commando’ 333Remainders of Belgrade Jewry 334Marking of Memorial Objects 337War Criminals 339APPENDICES SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS OF BELGRADE JEWRY 345List of Other Societies, Associations and Unions Active Among the Jews of Belgrade 364JEWISH BOOKS PRINTED IN BELGRADE 1837–1905 365Copyrights and Approvals 366Proofreadres, Typesetters, Printers 367Lists of 'Volunteers' 368Kinds of Books and Their Contents 369Authors from Belgrade and the Area Whose Books Were Printed in Belgrade 369List of Books 370NAMES OF BELGRADE JEWS 375Family Names of the Belgrade Jews 378JALIJA AND DOR?OL 382JEWISH QUARTERS AND THEIR INHABITANTS AT THE END OF 19TH CENTURY BY SOLOMON L. MOŠI? 383JALIJA ON THE DANUBE BY LAWYER DAVID-DA?A A. ALKALAY 391FIŠEKLIJA 394NOTES 397BIBLIOGRAPHY 426Abbreviations 426Bibliography 429INDEX 441
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