Abbreviations in Słownik Geograficzny

[Note: This list was compiled from information in the Słownik geograficzny and materials in Shea-Hoffman, In Their Words Vol. I: Polish and used with their permission.]

Common Abbreviations and Terms
akad. - akademia, academia
al. - alias, alias, also known as
analf. - analfabeci, illiterate
apt. - apteka, pharmacy
art. - artykuł, article
bagno, swamp, marsh
bernardyński, Bernardine (a religious order)
bisk. - biskup (biskupi, biskupstwo), bishop (bishop's, bishopric)
błoto, swamp, mud
bór, forest
brz. - brzeg, shore (of a lake or sea), bank (of a river)
bydło, cattle, livestock
c., cent. - cent austryacki, Austrian cent
cegielnia, brickyard, brickworks
Chełmno law, charter defining terms of incorporation of towns in Prussia, Pomerania and Mazovia
chłop, peasant
chrz. - chrześcijanie, Christians
c. k. - cesarsko-królewski, royal imperial (refers to institutions of the Austrian Emperor, German equivalent k. u. k., kaiserlich und koeniglich)
cz. - część, part
czet. - czetwiert, from Russian chetvert , literally "quarter," a Russian unit of liquid measure
czynsz, rent
czyt. - czytaj, read, see also
d.- see dm.
dek. - dekanat, deanery (subdivision of a diocese, comprised of parishes)
dł. - długi, long, or długość, length
dł. g. - długość geograficzna, longitude
dm. - dom or domy, homes, houses
dolina, valley
domin. - dominium, domain, manor
dominikański, Dominican (adj.)
dopł. - dopływ, tributary (of a river)
dr. - drewniany, made of wood
dr. żel. - droga żelazna, railway, railroad
droga bita, paved road
druk. - drukowany, printed
dusza, soul
dwór, manor, estate, court
dyec. - dyecezya, diocese (modern spelling diecezja)
dym, literally "smoke," a hearth, homestead
dz., dzies. - dziesięcina, see Measures of Area
dzien. - dziennik, newspaper, daily
emfit. - emfiteuza, long-term lease of unused land (especially church property) with an obligation to improve it
ew., ewang. - ewangelik or ewangelicki, Protestant (noun and adj. forms)
f. - fenig pruski, Prussian pfennig (coin)
fabr. - fabryka, factory
Ferro, refers to an archaic system measuring longitude from Ferro (now Hierro) in the Canary Islands, long the westernmost point known to Europeans, rather than from Greenwich, England; Ferro lies at 18 degrees West from Greenwich, so to get the right longitude for places in eastern Europe by modern standards, subtract about 18 degrees from the so-called "Ferro longitudes"
ferton, from late Latin ferto, an ancient Polish coin, worth a quarter of a grzywna; also called a wiardunek
fil. - filia or adj. filialny, branch (church)
fl. - floren, florin, Rhenish złoty
folw. - folwark, large manorial farmstead
fr. - frank, franc, or francuski, French
franciszkański, Franciscan (adj.)
Gal. - Galicya or Galicja, Galicia
gaz. - gazeta, newspaper
gbur, from Middle High German gebur, "farmer," a farmer or peasant who owned his own land and was therefore comparatively well off
German law, charter defining terms under which towns were incorporated, so-called because they were usually modeled on the charters given such German cities as Magdeburg and Chełmno
gimn. - gimnazyum, secondary school
gł. - głęboki, deep
gleba, soil
gm. - gmina, a rural administrative district composed of several villages
góra, mountain
gorzelnia, distillery
gościniec, highway
gr. - grosz, an ancient Polish coin, less than a złoty in value
gr. kat. - grecko-katolicki, Greek Catholic
granica, border, frontier; graniczy się na, borders on
gród, a settlement enclosed by walls or ramparts, some dating back to the Neolithic period. In the Middle Ages a gród served as a fortification and a center of political, administrative, and judicial authority (e. g., so-called grodzki courts); many developed into towns (compare Russian gorod, the modern word for "town, city").
grun. orn. - grunt orny, arable land
grzywna, an ancient silver coin, worth several denarii, used in Poland and other countries of Europe
gub. - gubernia, from Russian guberniya, term for a province in Russian Poland
ha. - hektar, see
Measures of Area
handel, trade, commerce; handel zbożem, grain trade
hodowla, raising, breeding, e. g., hodowla świn i owiec, pig and sheep raising
hr. - hrabia, count, or hrabina, countess, or hrabstwo, county
hyberna, from Latin hibernus, "winter," a tax paid toward the maintenance of the army during winteri i. - i inne, and others, et al.
incl. - inclusive, (Latin) inclusive
inst. - instytut, Institute
izr. - izraelici or izraelski, Jews, Jewish
Jaćwingi, "Jotvingians" or "Jacwingians," an ancient Baltic tribe, wiped out in the late 13th century by the Teutonic Knightsjarm. - jarmark, trade fair, market
J. Ch. - Jezus Chrystus, Jesus Christ
jednodworzec, a term used in the Russian Empire for those who were neither nobles nor peasants, or for one-time petty nobles who d lost that rank; literally it means "one with a single manor/court/yard"jez. - jezioro, lake
jęz. - język, language
jezuicki, Jezuit (adj.)
jutrzyna see mr.
j. w. - jak wyżej, as above
k., kop. - kopiejki, kopeks, or korzec, bushel
Kal. - Kalendarz, calendar
kapl. - kaplica, chapel
karczma, inn, tavern
karmelicki, Carmelite (adj.)
kasa pożyczkowa, lending institution
kat. - katolik or katolicki, Catholic
kil. - kilometr, kilometer
kl. - klasa, class, grade
km. - kmiecy, of a kmieć (peasant, serf)
kob. - kobiety, women
kol. - kolonia, colony, settlement
kolacya, collation, i. e., the privilege of nominating a candidate for a benefice or vacant ecclesiastical position
kom. cel. - komora celna, customs office
komor. - komornik, tenant farmer, peasant who boarded at another s home; in some contexts a bailiff, sheriff s officer
komtur, commander of the Teutonic Knights; a komturstwo was the area under his jurisdiction
kop. - kopiejki, kopeks
kopalnia, mine
kośc. - kościół, church, or kościelny, of the church, ecclesiastical
kr. - król, king; or krajcar, a Kreutzer (Austrian unit of currency)
król. - królewski, royal, or królestwo, kingdom; Król. Pol. - Królestwo Polskie, Kingdom of Poland
krzyż. -Krzyżacy, Teutonic Knights
ks. - książę, prince, duke
kś. - ksiądz, priest, Father
k. u. k. - see c. k.
kw. - kwadratowy, square (meters etc.)
kwarta, literally "a fourth," an ancient tax paid to maintain the army
l., ludn. - ludność, populace, population
łac. - łacina, Latin
łąka, meadow
łan, a unit of land measurement used in Poland since the 13th century, more or less synonymous with włóka; literally "field," it originally meant a full-sized farm a peasant received from his lord, in return for work on the lord s land--see Measures of Area (page 4)
las, forest, woods
leśny, forest (adj.)
leżeć, to lie, be located
liczy, numbers, counts, e. g., liczy 45 dm. = numbers 45 houses
lit. - litewski, Lithuanian
łot. - łotewski, Latvian
m. see mrk.
M. - Mały, small, little
mad. - madziarski, Hungarian, Magyar
Magdeburg law, charter defining terms under which towns were incorporated, modeled on the charter of the east-central German city of Magdeburg drawn up in the 13th century
majętność - estate, property
mansjonarz, a mansioner, a resident priest, holder of a small benefice and free of obligations beyond his basic duties as a priest
men. - menonici, Mennonites
męż. - mężczyżni, males, men
m. i. - między innemi, among others
mieszczanin, burgher, townsman (adj. form mieszczański)
mil. - milion, million
mk. - mieszkańcy, inhabitants, residents
mko. - miasteczko, small town
Mł. - Mały (or a declined form of that adj.), small, little
młyn, mill
mm. - millimetr, millimeter
mn. - mniejszy, smaller, minor
mr. - mórg, also morga, a unit of land measurement, from German Morgen, "morning," so called because it was supposed to be the amount of land a man and ox could plow in one morning; also called jutrzyna (from a Polish root meaning "dawn, morning")--see Measures of Area (page 4)
mrk. - marka, mark (German currency)
msto. - miasto, town, city
mt. - metr, meter
mur. - murowany, of brick or stone
n. - nad, above, over, on
N. - Nowy, new (generally used as part of a place name, e. g., Nowy Sącz)
Nadw. - Nadwiślańska (dr. ż.), railway on the Wisła or Vistula
nal. - należy, belongs to, should be
nied. - niedaleko, not far away (from)
niem. - niemiecki, German
nieużytek, barren or unused land
nizina, lowland
n. p. m. - nad powierzchnią morza, above sea level
n. s. - nowego stylu, New Style (dating)
ob. - obacz, see
obejmuje, covers, encompasses, includes
obr. - obraz, image, picture
obszar, area, territory
obwód, a political administrative subdivision, best translated as "district," e. g., military district, school district
od (preposition), from, e. g., 49 w. od Trok = 45 viorsts from Troki
odl. - odległy, distant, away, or odległość, distance
odn. - odnowiony, renewed, restored
ogr. - ogród, garden
okr. - okręg, district, a political administrative subdivision, or okręgowy, adjectival form of that noun
oo. - ojcowie, Fathers (religious), e. g., oo. jezuici, Jesuit Fathers
opactwo, abbey
os. - osada, settlement, large village
p. w. - pod wezwaniem, under the patronage of (refers to a church s patron saint, e. g., kościół p. w. św. Stanisława, "St. Stanisław Church")
pam. - pamiętnik, memoir, memorial
pańszczyzna, serfdom, often used as a term for a peasant s labor obligation to his lord, corv‚e
par. - parafia, parish, or parafialny, parochial, of the parish
pasmo gór, mountain range
pastw. - pastwiska, pastureland
piasek, sand
piaszczysty, sandy (adj., e. g., soil)
płd. - południe, south
płn., półn. - północ, north
pobl. - pobliski or w pobliżu, near
poczta, post office
pol. - polski, Polish, or polityczny, political, or policyjny, police (references in the Russian partition to an okr. pol. mean "police district")
poł. - położony, situated, located
półn. see płn.
półw. - półwysep, peninsula
por. - porównaj, compare
pos.- posiadłość or posesya, estate, property; pos. mn. (= mniejsza), minor estate; pos. większa: major estate
pow. - powiat, territorial administrative subdivision used in Poland since the 14th century, smaller than a province, subdivided into gminy, similar to a county or a German Kreis; abolished in 1975, reinstated, with new boundaries, in 1999
prawosł. - prawosławny, Orthodox
prebenda, a benefice or prebend, a church office (such as a rectory) endowed with fixed capital assets
prod. - produkcya, production
pryw. - prywatny, private
przemysł, industry, e. g., przemysł naftowy, oil industry
przepływać, flow through, over
przyl. - przyległości, appurtenances
przysiołek, hamlet, outlying settlement
przyst. - przystań or przystanek, harbor, port; stop, station
przyw. - przywilej, charter, grant
puszcza, forest
r. - rok, year
ref. - reformowani (ewangelicy), Reformed (Protestant)
reg. - regencya, regency
rewizja, literally "review," it can be an official inspection performed by a rewizor, or, especially in the Russian Empire, simply a "census"
rob. - robotnicy, workers, laborers
rodz. - rodzina, family
roln. - rolnik or rolnicy, farmer(s)
ross. - rossyjski,-a,-e, Russian
równina, plain
rs. - rubel srebrny, silver ruble
rubel, ruble
rz. or rzk. - rzeka, river
rz.-kat. - rzymski-katolicki, Roman Catholic
rząd. - rządowy, of the government
rzem. - rzemieślnik, craftsman
ś. - see św.
sąd, court of law; sąd grodzki, court affiliated with a gród (q. v.); sąd ziemski, land court; sąd powiatowy, county court; sąd gubernialny, provincial court; sąd wiejski, peasants  (rural) court
saż., sąż. - sażeń, sążeń, see
Measures of Length, page 4
schematyzm or szematyzm, an annual report issued by dioceses, which may include details on parishes, diocesan property, etc.scotus, skojec, skot., an ancient monetary unit, 1/24 of a grzywna
Sejm: Seym, diet (representative body, a little like Congress)
s. gm. - sąd gminny, district court of law
skład, composition, makeup; wchodziło w skład dóbr: was part of the estate
składać się z (+ genitive case), consists of, is comprised of
skojec, skot. = scotus, q. v.
śl. - śląsk, Silesia; śląski, Silesian
sołtys, village or hamlet administrator (ranks below a wójt), compare German Schultheiss or Schulze
sprzedawać, to sell
s. s. - starego stylu, Old Style (in dates)
śś.- święci or święte, Saints, see św.
St. - Stary, old, or Sanct. holy, St. (Latin)
st. - stopa, foot; stacja, station; stopień, degree
sta. - starosta, a kind of district foreman, a royal official in Poland in the 14th-18th century, in charge of treasury and police activities, and the judiciary
starostwo, the office or property or jurisdiction of a starosta, q. v.; sometimes affiliated with a gród (grodowe), sometimes not (niegrodowe)
staroż. - starożytny, antique, ancient
st. dr. ż. - stacja drogi żelaznej, railway station
stol. - stolica, capital (city)
st. p. - stacja pocztowa, post office
str. - stronica, page
st. tel. - stacja telegraficzna, telegraph station
stul. - stulecie, century
stwo. - starostwo, office or property of a starosta, regional administrator
św. - święty, St., Saint
sz., sześc. - sześcienny, cubic
sz., szer. - szeroki, wide; or szerokość, width
szematyzm = schematyzm, q. v.
sz. g. - szerokość geograficzna, latitude
szk. - szkoła, school
szl. - szlachecki, of the nobility (szlachta)
Szl. - Szląsk, Silesia (modern Polish śląsk, German Schlesien)
szp. - szpital, hospital, shelter
szwedzki, Swedish
t. - tom, volume, or tonna, ton
tal. - talar, talar (unit of currency)
tartak, sawmill
t. j. - tak jest, that is, i. e.
tm. - tamże, ibid., the same place
t. n. - tegoż nazwiska, of the same name
tys. - tysiąc, thousand
u. gm. - urząd gminny, district government office
ujście, mouth (of a river), bay
um. - umarł, died
uniw. - uniwersytet, university
ur. - urodził się, was born, or urodzony, born, n‚ (urodzona, n‚e)
urząd, office, e. g., urząd pocztowy, post office, urząd podatkowy, tax office, urząd gminy, local district office
uwłaszczenie, "enfranchisement," refers to reforms giving peasants legal ownership of the land they had farmed before but which had belonged to their lords, i. e., releasing them from serfdom; in the Kingdom of Poland enfranchisement went into effect in 1863 and 1864v. - vel, or, or German von, from, of
vol. - volumen, volume (Latin)
w. - wiek, age, century; or wiorsta, see Measures of Length
W. - Wielki, Great, Grand, large, big
w. a. - waluty austriackej, in Austrian currency
wda. - wojewoda, voivode, palatine, governor of a province
Wiad. - Wiadomości, news, message, information
wiejski, village (adj.), rural
większy, bigger, larger, major
wiorsta, see Measures of Length
wioska, (small) village
W. Ks. P. - Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie, Grand Duchy of Poznań
wł. - włóka, q. v.
wł., włas. - własność, property, usually with the genitive, e. g., własność rodziny Mierzejewskich, property of the Mierzejewski family; wł. mn. or większa, see pos.
właś. - właściwie, actually, correctly, properly, or właściciel, owner
włóka, a unit of land measurement used in Poland, more or less synonymous with łan; it comes from the root in the verb włóczyć, "to drag, harrow," thus referring to a field with soil plowed and harrowed and ready for planting. A włóka was generally about 30 mórgs -- considered a full-sized farm, one big enough to support a family, but this varies, depending on the part of Poland and the time-frame. See Measures of Area.
włośc. - włościanie or adjectival form włościański, peasants, peasant
woda, water
woj. - województwo, province
wojski, from the 15th century on, the lowest official of a ziemia; in ancient Poland the wojski was the official in charge of an area while other authorities were gone during wartime
wójt, chief officer of a group of villages, executive officer of a gmina
wola, a "new" settlement founded by peasants from a nearby village or by immigrants (often German), with their lord s permission and exemption from taxes or rents for a specified number of years
wś. - wieś, village; wieś kościelna, ecclesiastical (Church- owned) village; wieś królewska, royal village (owned by the crown); wieś szlachecka, noble village (owned by nobles); wieś włościańska, peasant village
wsch. - wschód, east, or wschodni, eastern
wyd. - wydanie, edition
wym. - wymawiaj, pronounce as
wys. - wysoki, high, tall, or wysokość, elevation, height
wysoczyzna, highland
wyst. - wystawiony, exhibited, displayed, drawn up
wzgórza, hills
wzn. - wzniesiony, raised, elevated, or wzniesienie, elevation
zach. - zachód, west
zagr. -zagroda, a croft, a small farmstead with a courtyard, buildings, and garden; a zagrodnik was the owner of a zagroda
zał. - założony, established, founded
zamek, castle
zaśc. - zaścianek, settlement of minor nobility, small village
zboże, grain
zbud. - zbudowany, built, constructed
ziemia, literally "land, earth," in older records a term for a large administrative subdivision; a district
ziemski, adj. from ziemia; sąd ziemski, a courts handling nobles  lawsuits over land and the like
złoty, gold, also a unit of currency
złr. - złoty reński, Rhenish złoty
zm. - zmarł, zmarły, dead, deceased
znajdować się, to be located, be found
żr. - żródło, source
zw. - zwany, called, named

Measures of Area
1 ar = 100 square meters
1 dziesiatyna or desyatina (Russian desyatina, Polish dziesięcina) = 2400 sq. sąż., 1.9508 new Polish mórgs, 109.252 ars (about 2.7 acres)
1 hektar = 100 ars = 1 hectare (about 2.47 acres)
łan: in Małopolska the Franconian łan was 23-28 hectares; in Mazovia and Podlasie the Chełmno łan was 16.8-17.0 hectares
1 mórg austr. = 57.5464 ars
1 mórg chełmiński = 56.170 ars
1 mórg polski = 55.9872 ars
1 mórg pruski = 25.532 ars
1 włóka pols. (nowopolska) = 30 mórgs

Measures of Length or Distance
1 arszyn (Russian arshin) = 0.7111936 meter
1 kilometr = 1,000 meters (0.62 mile)
1 łokieć austr. (Austrian ell) = 0.7775586 meters
1 łokieć polski (Polish ell) = 2 Polish stopy, 0.8099 arszyn, 0.576 meter
1 łokieć pruski (Prussian ell) = 0.66694 meters
1 metr = 1 meter, 1.73611 Polish łokci
1 mila austr. ("Austrian mile") = 7.585937 kilometers
1 mila geogr. (geographic mile, not the same as what we call a "mile") = 7.4074074 kilometers, 4,286.695 Polish sążeńs, 6.9437 wiorstas
1 mila polska lub ross. (Polish or Russian mila) = 7 wiorstas
1 sążeń (in Russian sazhen) = 3 arszyns, 2.1336 meters, 7 feet
1 sążeń austr. = 1.896484 meters
1 sążeń polski = 3 Polish łokcie
1 stopa pruska or reńska (Prussian or Rhenish foot) = 0.3238535 meters
1 wiorsta [Russian versta, verst] = 1,500 arszyns, 1.0667805 kilometers, 0.663 miles, 3,500 feet
[Editor's Note: This list was compiled from information in the Słownik geograficzny and materials in Shea-Hoffman, In Their Words  Vol. I: Polish.]