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Sephardic Genealogy: Second Edition
Discovering Your Sephardic Ancestors and Their World
by Jeffrey S. Malka

The first edition, which won the “Best Judaica Reference Book” (2002) of Association of Jewish Libraries, has been completely updated and improved. Nearly 100 pages longer, this new edition revises all the chapters to include new information and updates all internet and mail addresses. It adds a new chapter on DNA as well as new chapters on the available resources for the Sephardic communities of Portugal, England, Rhodes, Hamburg-Altona, and Vienna, Austria. There is also a new chapter on how to research the Spanish archives with clues on deciphering old Spanish script. The section on the Internet is fully updated and now includes more than 300 links to sites that have information valuable to Sephardic research. The book even reveals how to access past websites that are no longer available on the web. With its comprehensive indexes—the surname index alone has 3037 names—bibliography, and data-packed appendixes, this is even more the essential book on Sephardic genealogy and should be part of any Jewish genealogy bookshelf. 

7" x 10" 472 pp. hardcover $45.00



About the Author
JeffreyS. Malka, M.D., is author of the award-winning website Resources for Sephardic Genealogy. Asked in 2001 by JewishGen, the Internet site for Jewish genealogy, to develop its SefardSIG section, he created both the SefardSIG and KahalLinks websites, which he continues to develop and enhance. Dr. Malka is author of several articles on Sephardic genealogy in Etsi, the journal of the Sephardi Genealogical and Historical Society, and is author of several chapters in the forthcoming Avotaynu Guide to Jewish Genealogy.

Descended from a long line of Sephardic rabbis, Dr. Malka's grandfather was chief rabbi of Sudan from 1906 to 1949. In researching his own family roots, Dr. Malka has accumulated unique expertise in the resources available to Sephardic genealogists. In Sephardic Genealogy: Discovering Your Sephardic Ancestry and Their World, he guides the reader through the history of the Sephardim, describes the origins and meanings of common Sephardic family names, and lists genealogical resources available in the many countries that Sephardic Jews inhabited.

A retired orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Malka, an Associate Professor of Orthopaedic surgery at Georgetown University, was chairman of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Inova Fairfax Hospital in Virginia.


Contents
List of Illustrations xv
List of Tables xvii
Preface to the Second Edition xviii
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
Overview xxii

PART I A LITTLE HISTORY 1
1. Who Are the Sephardim? 3
2. Brief History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal 9
Early Jewish Presence in Spain 9
Early History (to 711 C.E.) 12
The Moors (711–1492) 12
The Golden Age (10th–11th Centuries) 17
Christian Spain (12th–15th Centuries) 19
Conversos and Expulsion (12th–15th Centuries) 20
Spanish Inquisition (15th–19th Centuries) 21
Portugal's Expulsion 24
After the 1492 Expulsion 24
Suggested Reading 25
3. Spanish Diaspora 27
1492 Exodus 28
New Christians or Crypto-Jews? 29
4. Andalusian-Moroccan Jewish Universe 31
Jewish Presence in Morocco 32
Population Exchanges 34
Linguistic Groups 36
Berbers and Jews 37
Jews of Morocco 38
Foundation of the Golden Age of Spain 39
5. Jews Under Islamic Rule 41
Islamic View of the World 42
Jews and Moslems 43
6. Jews in The Netherlands 45
Background 45
Brief History 46
Aliases 50
7. Amazon Journey 51
Indiana Jones Meets Tangier Moshe 51
Migration Patterns 51
The Amazon 52
Family Names 53
Suggested Reading 54
8. Geonim 55
Babylonia 55
Geniza 56
Jewish Babylonia 56
The Exilarch 57
Babylonian Academies 58
The Gaon 59
9. Sephardic Languages 61
Hebrew 61
Arabic 64
Judeo-Spanish and Ladino 66
French 71
Berber and Judeo-Berber 72
10. Evolution of Sephardic Names 73
Biblical Era 73
Babylonian Era 76
Hellenic Era 77
Roman and Christian Eras 77
Spanish Names 78
Patronymics 80
Jewish Names 80
Individual Names 82
Common Sephardic Naming Conventions 82
Spelling and Acculturation 83
11. Sephardic surnames in Iberian Research 85
Sources for Medieval Sephardic Names 86
Research in Spanish Notarial Archives 86
There was no Spain! 87
Spelling, Alphabet and Language 89
Linguistic etymology of names 91
Patronymic variants 91
Translation variants 91
Suggested Reading 93

PART II GENEALOGY BASICS 95
12. How to Get Started 97
Begin With What You Know 97
Record Your Sources 98
Next Steps 99
How to Interview Effectively 101
Precautions 103
Logs 103
Learn Your History 104
Ethics 104
Suggested Reading 105
13. Sephardic Genealogy 106
Resources Common to Sephardim and Ashkenazim 106
Unique Sephardic Resources 108
14. DNA and Genealogy 111
The Basics 111
DNA Testing 114
Bottom Line 119
15. Organizing and Documenting Records 122
Suggested Filing System for Your Documents 122
Forms and Summary Sheets 123
Documenting Sources 123
Preserving History for Posterity 125
16. Computers and the Internet 127
E-mail 127
Newslists 128
Websites 129
Limitations of the Internet 130
Internet Security and Privacy 130
17. Genealogy Software 131
Genealogy Programs 132
Reviews of Software Programs 134
18. Calendars and Date Conversions 135
Calendars 135
Conversion Tools 137
19. Periodicals 139
Genealogy Periodicals 139
Academic Periodicals on Sephardim 140
General Sephardic Periodicals 141

PART III COUNTRY RESOURCES 143
20. Algeria 145
Archives 145
Naturalization Applications 147
Jewish Cemeteries 148
Place Names 148
Suggested Reading 150
21. Austria 152
Genealogical Resources 153
Civil Records 154
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) 154
Suggested Reading 154
22. Balkans 155
Bulgaria 155
Genealogical Resources 157
Oral History 158
Yugoslavia 158
Genealogical Resources 159
Oral History 161
Suggested Reading 161
23. Caribbean 166
Curaçao, St. Eustatia and St. Maarten 166
Jamaica 168
St. Croix, St. Thomas, and Nevis 168
Suggested Reading 170
24. Egypt 173
History 173
Jewish Records 177
Jewish Communities in Small Towns of Egypt 180
Library of Jewish Heritage in Egypt 180
Cemeteries 180
Egyptian Civil Records 181
Montefiore Censuses 181
Egyptian Diaspora 182
Sources Outside Egypt 182
Internet Resources 182
Suggested Reading 183
25. England 185
Jewish Records 186
Civil Records and Naturalizations 187
Wills 188
Census Records 188
LDS (Church of Latter Day Saints) 189
Suggested Reading 189
26. Germany: Hamburg/Altona 191
Elsewhere in Germany 192
Archival Resources 192
Suggested Reading 193
27. Iran (Persia) 195
Genealogical Resources 198
Suggested Reading 198
28. Iraq 200
History 200
Far-East Interlude 201
Genealogical Resources 201
Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center - Or Yehuda 202
Suggested Reading 202
29. Israel 204
Archives and Libraries 204
Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center - Or Yehuda 206
Ottoman Nufus Registers 207
Burial Societies (Hevrot Kadisha) 207
Immigrant and Ethnic associations 207
Agricultural Settlements 208
Other Resources 208
Suggested Reading 208
30. Italy 209
History 210
Research Strategies 212
Vital Records 213
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) 216
Douglas E. Goldman Jewish Genealogy Center 216
Censuses 216
Jewish Records 217
Notarial Records 217
Other Records 218
Italian Script 218
Websites 218
Suggested Reading 219
31. Morocco 229
Moroccan Diaspora 229
Archives 231
Other Foreign Connections 233
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum 234
Vital Records 235
Jewish Community and Records 235
Ketubot 236
Cemeteries 236
Suggested Reading 236
32. The Netherlands 243
Records and Archives 243
Resources in The Netherlands 244
Civil Records 245
Jewish Records 245
Websites 250
Israel Resources 250
Suggested Reading 251
33. Portugal 253
Jewish Genealogy in Portugal 254
Portuguese Archives 256
Portuguese Inquisition 256
Civil Records 256
Church Records 257
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) 257
Suggested Reading 257
34. Rhodes 259
Archival Resources 259
Cemeteries 260
SephardicGen databases 260
Suggested Reading 260
35. Salonica 262
Synagogues 263
Genealogical Resources 264
Oral History 266
Suggested Reading 266
36. South America 268
Argentina 268
Brazil 269
Suggested Reading 271
37. Spain 272
Spanish Inquisition 272
Repositories with Inquisition Documents 275
Inquisition in the New World 277
Archivo General de Indias 279
Notarial and Church Archives 280
Catholic Church Records 281
Ministerio de Cultura Identification 281
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) Records 282
Suggested Reading 282
38. Sudan 285
Jewish Archives 286
Sudan Jewish Cemetery 287
Suggested reading 287
39. Syria 288
History 288
Genealogy Resources 289
Suggested Reading 289
40. Tunisia 291
Brief History 291
Grana Community of Tunis 292
Archives 293
Foreign Connections 293
Tunisia 293
Suggested Reading 294
41. Turkey and the Ottoman Empire 295
Modern Turkey 295
Ottoman Government 295
Sephardim in Turkey 296
Istanbul 298
Turkish Imperial Archives 299
Research Requirements 300
Turkish Script 300
Turkish Calendar 301
Genealogical Resources 301
Jewish Records 302
Cemeteries 303
Civil Records 304
Salname 304
Oral History 304
Suggested Reading 306
 Genealogical Resources 308
Naturalization Records 309
Passenger Ship Records 310
Census Records 311
Jewish Records 311
Significant Dates: 312
Suggested Reading 313

PART IV INTERNET 315
Sephardic Websites 317
Sephardic Family Pages 319
Jewish Genealogy Websites - General 322
Jewish Genealogy Blogs 323
Anusim or Crypto-Jews 323
Balkans and Greece 323
Caribbean 325
Egypt 325
France 326
Hamburg, Germany 326
Iraq and Syria 327
Israel 327
Italy 328
Mexico 329
Morocco 329
The Netherlands 330
North Africa 331
Portugal 332
South America 333
Turkey 334
United States 334
Gazetteers 335
People Search Pages 335

APPENDIXES 337
Appendix A. Etymology of Selected Sephardic Names 339
Appendix B. Sephardic Cursive Alphabet 347
Appendix C. Arabic Alphabet 350
Appendix D. Sephardic Documents at the Central Archives for the
History of the Jewish People 352
Appendix E. Sephardic Register and Record Books at the Jewish National
and University Library 353
Appendix F. Genealogy Forms 354
Appendix G. Jewish Names in Printed Sources 359
Appendix H. Moslem Calendar 368
Appendix I. Ottoman Records in Israel 369
Appendix J. Inquisition Tribunals in Spain 376
Appendix K. Tombstone Inscriptions from Small Egyptian Towns 377
Appendix L. Surnames & Synagogue Affiliations in 16th-Century Salonica 381
Appendix M. Example: Malka in pre-Expulsion Northern Spain 389

Glossary 391
Bibliography 394
Surname Index 413
Index 434


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